Over the years, different models have been used for conducting business in BPO. The regular outsourcing models of on-shoring, near-shoring and offshoring are seen in BPO as well. TPI, a sourcing advisory, has observed that in addition to on-shoring, near-shoring and offshoring, BPO operations are also conducted through the following three business models :
• Transactional BPO: Transactional BPO handles one aspect of a process only. The customer has to carry out a significant part of the process in-house and hence the customer owns the risk of the process. Also, outsourcing many aspects of the process in a transactional mode leads to complex fragmentation which can pose as a threat to productive delivery.
• Niche BPO: A niche BPO carries out 3-4 aspects of a process. A niche BPO, which also makes certain investments in the customer's process, aims at improving the efficiency of the process. The vendor in a niche BPO works in close coordination with the buyer, sometimes seeking the services of the customer's employees. Both the vendor and the buyer share the risk of the process.
• Comprehensive BPO: A comprehensive BPO handles both transactional and administrative tasks in a process and takes 70 percent responsibility of the output. The vendor purchases the buyer's assets and also hires most of its employees. Comprehensive BPO has bulk deals lasting for 7-10 years.